句型

General Function 3. Classifying and listing

2022-03-28 07:34:04 simyang 0

Classifying and listing

When we classify things, we group and name them on the basis of something that they have in common. By doing this we can understand certain qualities and features which they share as a class. Classifying is also a way of understanding differences between things. In writing, classifying is often used as a way of introducing a reader to a new topic. Along with writing definitions, the function of classification may be used in the early part of an essay, or longer piece of writing. We list things when we want to treat and present a series of items or different pieces of information systematically. The order of a list may indicate rank importance.

Classifying a topic

X can be classified into Xi and Xii.
X can be categorised into Xi, Xii and Xiii.
Several taxonomies for X have been developed …
Different methods have been proposed to classify …
X may be divided into several groups: a) …, b) … or c) …
Generally, X provides two types of information: Xi and Xii.
It has become commonplace to distinguish ‘Xi’ from ‘Xii’ forms of X.
X is generally classified into two types: Xi, also known as …, and Xii or …
There are two basic approaches currently being adopted in research into X. One is …
The theory distinguishes two different types of X, i.e. social X and semantic X (Smith, 2013).
The works of Smith fall under three headings: (1) dialogues and …, (2) collections of facts, and …

X may be divided intothree mainclasses.
sub-groups.
categories.
X may be classifiedon the basis of
according to
depending on
in terms of
Yinto Xi and Xii.
Describing a specific system of classification

Smith (2015) draws a distinction between …
Smith (2006) categorised X as being a) …, b) …, or c) …
Smith’s (1980) typology of X is the one most widely–used.
Jones (1987) distinguishes between systems that are a) …, b) …, or c) …
A third method, proposed by Smith et al. (2010), bases the classification on a …
To better understand X, Smith et al. (2011) classified Y into three distinct types using …
For Smith, X is of four kinds: (1) X which …; (2) X which …; (3) X which …; and (4) X which…
In Jones’s system, individuals were classified as belonging to upper or lower categories of …
Smith’s Taxonomy is a classification system used to define and distinguish different levels of …
Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) …, and b) …

In the traditional system, X is gradedin terms of …
on the basis of …
according to whether …
Smith (1966)divided
classified
grouped
Xsinto two broad types: Xi’s and Xii’s.
Thomas (1996) describesfour basic kinds of validity:logical, content, criterion and construct.
Commenting on a system of classification
This system of classification

includes …
allows for …
helps distinguish …
is useful because …
is very simple and …
provides a basis for …
can vary depending on …
was agreed upon after …
has been broadened to include …
was developed for the purpose of …
is more scientific since it is based on …

is now out of date.
can be problematic.
is in need of revision.
poses a problem for …
has limited utility with respect to …

Introducing lists

This topic can best be treated under three headings: X, Y and Z.
The key aspects of management can be listed as follows: X, Y and Z.
There are three reasons why the English language has become so dominant. These are:
There are two types of effect which result when a patient undergoes X. These are …
The disadvantages of the new approach can be discussed under three headings, which are: …
The Three Voices for Mass is divided into six sections. These are: the Kyrie, Gloria, ….
Appetitive stimuli have three separable basic functions. Firstly, they … Secondly, they …
During his tour of Britain, he visited the following industrial centres: Manchester, Leeds, and …
This section has been included for several reasons: it is …; it illustrates …; and it describes…
The Mass for Four Voices consists of five movements, which are: the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei.

Referring to other people's lists

Smith and Jones (1991) list X, Y and Z as the major causes of infant mortality.
Smith (2003) lists the main features of X as follows: it is X; it is Y; and it has Z.
Smith (2003) argues that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion …
Smith (2003) suggests three conditions for X. Firstly, X should be … Secondly, it needs to be …


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