Fashion & Photography

Photo Answers 拍摄问题选答

2022-04-03 12:36:53 simyang 3

Photo Answers

Bemused by barrel distortion? Woolly about white balance? Send your technique and camera queries to digitalcamera@futurenet.com

Our expert answers your questions. Plus, Tech Check and Image Rescue

Wide eyed Q

I have purchased a wide-angle lens for landscapes, but I am really struggling with my compositions. I thought it would be easier with a wider focal length, so why isn’t it? Anne Smithson

A

There’s a common misconception that a wideangle lens offers the best focal length for landscape photography, but that’s not always the case. Of course, classic landscape scenes are frequently taken at focal lengths from 16mm to 35mm, but the fact is that in lots of cases you’re better off with a longer lens to narrow, and therefore simplify your angle of view. However, if you can get it right with a wider lens then you will have a dramatic image from the foreground to the far distance.

You have to build your image carefully, the most crucial aspect being that foreground area, because it is going to take up such a large part of your photo. This means it needs to have something interesting to hold the eye and take you into the rest of the frame, but finding foreground interest isn’t always simple. With some locations, such as coastline or the rocky shore of a lake, it’s easy, as boulders provide detail, but in other circumstances you might need more subtle elements like the texture of grass, or even water ripples as an anchor to your shot.

Keep working at it and looking for elements that will fill that first third or so of your frame, and you’ll soon get the hang of wide-angle composition.

Colour theory Q

I am trying to get my head around the basics of colour theory for my evening course on photography, but it’s really confusing. Any chance of a simple breakdown? Leonard Mann

A

As you will hopefully already know, the primary colours of light are red, green and blue (RGB). These are pure colours, and therefore cannot be created by mixing other colours together, but when you mix red, green and blue in different ways, you create all the other hues that exist.

As photographers, we don’t actually ‘mix’ colours together in order to create other colours – we leave that particular task to painters, so it’s better for us to understand the relationship that colours have with each other. The most important thing to remember is that complementary colours are located opposite the primary colours on a colour wheel, and therefore they give us a strong contrast when they are combined in an image.

If you take a look at the diagram to the left showing red, green and blue (our primary light colours) and then magenta, yellow and cyan, the secondary colours of light, it’s easy to work out that anything opposite them will provide us with a strong contrast. Red against cyan, magenta against green and blue against yellow are all strong and effective contrasts, so if we find these colours existing within a scene, we know we have the boldest of contrasts.

In real life, magenta and cyan aren’t all that common, but blue and yellow are, and this combination will always provide an intense contrast when placed in close proximity to each other.

Wild mono

QI’m experimenting with my wildlife photography, and wondered whether black and white can work well in this area? Tom Lacey

ABlack and white photography is effective across any genre, and it can work beautifully for wildlife. As always, it’s simply a case of deciding whether removing the colour from the scene is going to improve the final image or reduce its impact, but the key decisions around the effectiveness of monochrome over colour are the same regardless of the subject.

Scour the internet and it won’t take long to find many photographers who are skilled in black and white wildlife imagery, and there is something very powerful about it when it’s done well. If I see a wildlife scene I think will work well in black and white, it’s usually because the available light is giving me strong light and shade that will create something with real impact. It might actually mean that the processed monochromatic image has less detail than the colour version, but the tonal shades result in a much simpler and direct image. With digital, you are always going to shoot the scene in colour, so you get a full range of tones that can be manipulated and edited into the image you want. Look at the difference between my two Namibian elephant shots. The original colour is okay, but the harsh light and darker sky behind mean the shaded side of the elephant is less dominant. Take it to mono, lighten the sky so that its detail is lost, and suddenly the main subject becomes much more powerful, and the textures in the elephant’s skin stand out more. It even feels like the elephant has more space around it, even though the composition hasn’t changed. ACR or Lightroom? Q

I’m stepping up from shooting JPEGs to raw files, so should I use Adobe Lightroom or Adobe Camera Raw? Henry Walker A

For starters, there are alternatives you should look into, such as Affinity Photo, Capture One and ON1 Photo, to name but a few. However, if it’s one of Adobe’s Raw conversion programs you want, there isn’t a huge difference between how Lightroom and Camera Raw (ACR) actually process a photo. In fact, if you learn how to process in one, than other than a few slight naming and layout differences, you’ll be able to use the other!

I switch between the two programs regularly. The biggest difference is that with Lightroom, you get a file management and processing system rolled into one. With ACR, you only get the image manipulation part, and for the file management you need to use Adobe Bridge. Bridge and Lightroom’s file management are similar, but when you access a raw file via Bridge and open it in ACR, you are working directly onto the raw, while in Lightroom you import a ‘copy’ into your management system, and when you work on a file, the original is still sitting untouched where you saved it. In reality this makes no difference, since you can always reset a raw file to its original unmanipulated state. PersonalIy, I prefer Lightroom for managing large numbers of folders with lots of images, so it’s ideal if you are going to be taking multiple images and want to organise them easily.

Incidentally, there are also different versions of Lightroom – Classic and one just called Lightroom. Lightroom provides cloud-based storage, while with Classic, you store your Raw files yourself on hard drives. Choose the one you feel will suit you best.

Correcting the colour Q

I’ve bought a 10-stop filter, but the images I get when using it have a strong colour cast. Is there a way to get more accurate colours? Ronnie Court

A

10-stop NDs are notorious for colour casts, although the more expensive ones aren’t too bad, and often you only need minor adjustments with them. Your best answer is always to shoot raw and then make a correction in post-processing by dropping the White Balance selector over a tone that should be neutral. For example, in this coastal shot I dropped it onto the white water in the foreground and got this much warmer result, which is more accurate to the sunset conditions. I’d probably still tweak it further, but that one trick took me close to where the colour should be.

Hold on Q

I’ve just brought a large reflector, but I’m finding it tricky to hold it and shoot at the same time. What can I do? David Goldsmith

A

You can get reflector holders that fix to a lighting stand, but they’re an extra cost, and if you are shooting outside, they’re obviously susceptible to the slightest breeze, because a large reflector is a bit like a large sail! I use a Lastolite TriGrip, which has a handle, so often I can hold this with a couple of fingers from the hand under my camera, and if I’m only doing head shots I can get the model to hold the other end, but this only works if you are using it for bouncing light up. In truth, the only way to get the best from a big reflector without putting it on a stand is to have someone hold and position it to your instructions. At a pinch, and if it’s not windy, you can lean the reflector at an angle against a tripod so it uplights your model.

Three modes on the lens Q

I’ve just got a Canon RF 100-500mm lens, and it has three different stabiliser modes on it. What are they all for? Natalie Hart

A

For general photography use, you should select Mode 1. In this stabiliser mode, the lens will try to correct standard movement, so it’s good for helping to prevent camera shake when you need to shoot with slower shutter speeds. Use Mode 2 when you are tracking your subject moving across the frame, as it will ignore the panning movement, but compensate for any up or down ‘shake’. Mode 3 is a sort of hybrid mode, but it’s only activated when you engage the shutter button to fire your shot. Play with the different modes and see what difference they make to both your images and the view in the viewfinder.


照片答案被桶形扭曲所迷惑?关于白平衡的毛茸茸的?将您的技术和相机查询发送给 digitalcamera@futurenet.com数码相机世界1 4月 2022安德鲁·詹姆斯·安德鲁是一位经验丰富的作家和摄影师 - 如果你有问题,他会在这里提供帮助。我们的专家将回答您的问题。此外,技术检查和图像救援大眼睛Q我已经购买了一个用于风景的广角镜头,但我真的在构图上挣扎。我认为使用更宽的焦距会更容易,那么为什么不呢?安妮·史密森一个有一个常见的误解,认为宽角镜头为风景摄影提供了最佳的焦距,但情况并非总是如此。当然,经典的风景场景经常以16mm到35mm的焦距拍摄,但事实是,在许多情况下,你最好使用更长的镜头来缩小,从而简化你的视角。但是,如果您可以使用更宽的镜头正确拍摄,那么从前景到远处,您将获得戏剧性的图像。你必须仔细地构建你的图像,最关键的方面是前景区域,因为它将占据你照片的很大一部分。这意味着它需要有一些有趣的东西来吸引你的眼睛,把你带到框架的其余部分,但找到前景的兴趣并不总是那么简单。对于某些位置,例如海岸线或湖泊的岩石岸边,这很容易,因为巨石提供了细节,但在其他情况下,您可能需要更微妙的元素,例如草的纹理,甚至是水波纹作为镜头的锚点。继续努力,寻找能够填满你画面前三分之一左右的元素,你很快就会掌握广角构图的窍门。色彩理论 Q我试图在我的摄影晚间课程中了解色彩理论的基础知识,但这真的很令人困惑。有没有可能发生简单的故障?伦纳德·曼恩


一个正如您已经知道的那样,光的原色是红色,绿色和蓝色(RGB)。这些是纯色,因此不能通过将其他颜色混合在一起来创建,但是当您以不同的方式混合红色,绿色和蓝色时,您就创建了存在的所有其他色调。作为摄影师,我们实际上并没有为了创造其他颜色而将颜色"混合"在一起 - 我们将特定的任务留给画家,因此我们最好了解颜色之间的关系。要记住的最重要的事情是,互补色位于色轮上的原色对面,因此当它们组合在图像中时,它们会给我们带来强烈的对比度。如果你看一下左边的图表,显示红色,绿色和蓝色(我们的原色),然后是洋红色,黄色和青色,光的次要颜色,很容易发现它们对面的任何东西都会为我们提供强烈的对比度。红色对青色,品红色对绿色,蓝色对黄色都是强烈而有效的对比度,所以如果我们发现这些颜色存在于场景中,我们知道我们有最大胆的对比度。在现实生活中,品红色和青色并不常见,但蓝色和黄色很常见,当彼此靠近时,这种组合将始终提供强烈的对比。野生单声道QI正在试验我的野生动物摄影,并想知道黑白是否可以在这个领域很好地工作?汤姆·莱西黑白摄影对任何类型的摄影都有效,它可以很好地为野生动物工作。与往常一样,这只是决定从场景中去除颜色是否会改善最终图像或减少其影响的情况,但是无论主体如何,围绕单色而不是彩色的有效性的关键决策都是相同的。


在互联网上搜索,很快就会找到许多擅长黑白野生动物图像的摄影师,当它做得好的时候,它有一些非常强大的东西。如果我看到一个野生动物场景,我认为黑白效果很好,通常是因为可用的光线给了我强烈的光和阴影,这将创造出具有真正影响的东西。这实际上可能意味着处理过的单色图像比彩色版本具有更少的细节,但色调阴影导致图像更简单,更直接。使用数字,您始终会以彩色拍摄场景,因此您可以获得可以操纵和编辑成所需图像的全方位色调。看看我的两次纳米比亚大象射击之间的差异。原来的颜色还可以,但后面刺眼的光线和较暗的天空意味着大象的阴影面不那么占主导地位。把它变成单声道,照亮天空,让它的细节丢失,突然间,主要拍摄对象变得更加强大,大象皮肤上的纹理更加突出。甚至感觉大象周围有更多的空间,即使构图没有改变。ACR 还是 Lightroom?Q 我正在从拍摄JPEG到原始文件,那么我应该使用Adobe Lightroom还是Adobe Camera Raw?亨利·沃克 A 对于初学者来说,您应该考虑一些替代方案,例如Affinity Photo,Capture One和ON1 Photo,仅举几例。但是,如果它是您想要的Adobe的原始转换程序之一,那么Lightroom和Camera Raw(ACR)实际处理照片的方式之间没有太大区别。事实上,如果你学会了如何在一个中处理,而不是除了一些轻微的命名和布局差异,你将能够使用另一个! 我经常在这两个程序之间切换。最大的区别在于,使用Lightroom,您可以将文件管理和处理系统合并为一个。使用ACR,您只能获得图像处理部分,对于文件管理,您需要使用Adobe Bridge。Bridge 和 Lightroom 的文件管理类似,但是当您通过 Bridge 访问原始文件并在 ACR 中打开它时,您直接在原始文件上工作,而在 Lightroom 中,您将"副本"导入到管理系统中,当您处理文件时,原始文件仍然原文件原封不动地保存在保存它的位置。


实际上,这没有任何区别,因为您始终可以将原始文件重置为其原始的未操纵状态。就个人而言,我更喜欢Lightroom来管理包含大量图像的大量文件夹,因此,如果您要拍摄多个图像并希望轻松组织它们,这是理想的选择。顺便说一句,还有不同版本的Lightroom - Classic和一个刚刚被称为Lightroom的版本。Lightroom 提供基于云的存储,而使用 Classic,您可以自己将 Raw 文件存储在硬盘驱动器上。选择您认为最适合您的那个。校正颜色 Q我买了一个10级滤镜,但我使用它时得到的图像有很强的色偏。有没有办法获得更准确的颜色?罗尼苑一个10档ND因色偏而臭名昭著,尽管更昂贵的ND还不错,而且通常您只需要对它们进行微小的调整。您最好的答案始终是拍摄原始照片,然后在后期处理中通过将白平衡选择器放在应该是中性的音调上进行校正。例如,在这个沿海镜头中,我把它放到前景的白水面上,得到了更温暖的结果,这与日落条件更准确。我可能还会进一步调整它,但是这个技巧让我接近了颜色应该在哪里。按住 Q 键我刚刚带了一个大的反光板,但我发现同时拿着它和拍摄很棘手。我该怎么办?大卫·戈德史密斯一个你可以得到固定在照明支架上的反射器支架,但它们是额外的成本,如果你在外面拍摄,它们显然容易受到最轻微的微风的影响,因为一个大的反光板有点像一个大帆!我使用一个带有手柄的Lastolite TriGrip,所以通常我可以用相机下方的手上的几根手指握住它,如果我只做头部拍摄,我可以让模型握住另一端,但这只有在你用它来反射光线时才有效。事实上,在不将其放在支架上的情况下,从大型反射器中获得最佳效果的唯一方法是让某人握住并按照您的指示放置它。在紧要关头,如果不是刮风,您可以将反光板倾斜一定角度靠在三脚架上,这样它就可以照亮您的模型。镜头 Q 上的三种模式我刚刚买了一个佳能RF 100-500mm镜头,它有三种不同的稳定器模式。它们都是为了什么?娜塔莉·哈特
一个对于常规摄影用途,您应该选择模式1。在这种稳定器模式下,镜头将尝试校正标准运动,因此当您需要以较慢的快门速度拍摄时,它有助于防止相机抖动。当您跟踪拍摄对象在画面中移动时,请使用模式 2,因为它会忽略平移移动,但会补偿任何向上或向下的"抖动"。模式3是一种混合模式,但只有在您按下快门按钮以射击时才会激活。使用不同的模式,看看它们对图像和取景器中的视图有什么不同。


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