The Xi’an Banpo Site and the Lintong Jiangzhai Site of the Yangshao Culture 西安半坡遗址和杨阚文化临潼江寨遗址
The Xi’an Banpo Site and the Lintong Jiangzhai Site of the Yangshao Culture both have a central communal activity area surrounded by small residential rooms. Kilns for baking pottery were located near the residential quarters. A moat for protection was excavated around the village, and its tombs lie beyond the moat. Th e Niuheliang Site of the Hongshan Culture has a temple for worshipping a goddess and a large altar. Th ese sites indicate the existence of a clan, a kinship-based community with families as the basic units. A tribe normally consisted of a few clans. The progression from being hunter-gatherers to doing primitive agriculture and livestock husbandry, as well as the resulting settlements and clan society are all signs of increased productivity brought about by profound changes in mode of production and social structure.